Matoso A., Hassan O., Petrozzino F., Vishal Rao B., Ballentine Carter H., Epstein J.I.
Journal of Urology 2015 194:3 (685-689)
Purpose We studied adverse radical prostatectomy findings in men on an active surveillance program with different entry and exit criteria. Materials and Methods The study included 80 men with biopsy progression, 33 who opted out for personal reasons and 24 who initially did not meet entry criteria mainly due to increased prostate specific antigen density. Results Of men who opted out 78.8% had a higher Gleason score of 6 than men who progressed on biopsy (46.2%, p = 0.002) and men with high prostate specific antigen density (45.8%, p = 0.02). Men with high prostate specific antigen density had less organ confined disease than the group that opted out (p <0.006) and a trend compared to the biopsy progression group (p = 0.07). Mean dominant tumor volume was lower in men who opted out than in those with biopsy progression (0.56 vs 1.1 cc, p = 0.03). The incidence of insignificant cancer was higher in men who opted out (48.4%) than in those with biopsy progression (28.4%, p = 0.05) and those with high prostate specific antigen density (20.8%, p = 0.035). There was a higher incidence of anterior tumor in men with high prostate specific antigen density (55.0%) than with biopsy progression (21.3%, p = 0.009) and a trend compared to those who opted out (27.3%, p = 0.06). Conclusions The majority of men with biopsy progression still had tumors with features of curable disease. Men who opted out without biopsy progression had even less adverse findings, which supports counseling men to stay on active surveillance while they meet followup criteria. Men with elevated prostate specific antigen density had more anterior tumors and less organ confined cancer, substantiating that the ideal patients for active surveillance are those who meet all entry criteria.