Zhang M., Zhao X., Deng Y., Tang B., Sun Q., Zhang Q., Chen W., Yao D., Yang J., Cao L., Guo H.
Journal of Urology 2015 194:3 (647-652)
Purpose Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin, also known as lipocalin-2, is a 25 kDa protein now considered the biochemical gold standard for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury. Recently lipocalin-2 was suggested to have an important role in several human neoplasias. In this study we assess lipocalin-2 expression in 2 renal tumor types and analyze its association with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Materials and Methods The study group included 189 patients who underwent surgery for renal lesions between 2003 and 2013. Of these patients 105 had clear cell renal cell carcinoma and 84 had papillary renal cell carcinoma. The association of lipocalin-2 immunoexpression and clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to estimate the prognostic significance of potential confounders in predicting overall and disease-free survival. Results Lipocalin-2 expression in different histotypes of analyzed tumors was highly and significantly associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma (p <0.001). In papillary renal cell carcinoma high lipocalin-2 expression was associated with high Fuhrman grade (p <0.001), tumor size greater than 7 cm (p = 0.007), increased TNM stage (p <0.001) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.009). On univariable and multivariable Cox survival analyses of papillary renal cell carcinoma, after a median followup of 49.1 months (range 7 to 136) lipocalin-2 expression was associated with reduced overall survival (HR 4.10, 95% CI 1.19-14.14, p = 0.026) and disease-free survival (HR 2.56, 95% CI 1.01-6.48, p = 0.047). Conclusions Lipocalin-2 over expression may be a prognostic factor in decreased overall and disease-free survival in papillary renal cell carcinoma. The association of lipocalin-2 over expression and poor prognosis with papillary renal cell carcinoma may have potential diagnostic and therapeutic utility.