Laparoscopic Cryoablation for Renal Cell Carcinoma: 100-Month Oncologic Outcomes

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Caputo P.A., Ramirez D., Zargar H., Akca O., Andrade H.S., O’Malley C., Remer E.M., Kaouk J.H.

Journal of Urology 2015

Purpose: With the incidence of renal cell carcinoma on the rise treatment options for the small renal mass have broadened. Cryoablation is increasingly used as a therapeutic option for renal tumors in select cases. However, studies with long-term oncologic outcomes are sparse. We evaluated the long-term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic renal mass cryoablation. Materials and Methods: We reviewed our laparoscopic cryoablation database for patients treated with laparoscopic cryoablation from October 1997 to February 2005. Patients with less than 3 months of followup were excluded from study. Patient and tumor characteristics, and perioperative outcomes, including complications, were recorded. Recurrence-free, cancer specific and overall survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: A total of 142 tumors in 138 consecutive patients were treated with laparoscopic cryoablation. Mean age of the cohort was 66.35 years. Of the patients 99 (71.7%) were male and 39 (28.3%) were female. Mean body mass index was 29.15 kg/m<sup>2</sup> and median ASA® score was 3. A solitary kidney was present in 23 patients (16.2%). Mean tumor size on cross-sectional imaging was 2.4 cm. The mean preoperative and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate was 66.72 and 61.00 ml per minute, respectively. The postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate was determined at a mean ± SD of 15.17 ± 10.99months of followup. The median R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score was 5. Of the 142 tumors 100 were diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma after histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. At 3, 5 and 10 years in patients diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma estimated recurrence-free survival was 91.4%, 86.5% and 86.5%, estimated cancer specific survival was 96.8%, 96.8% and 92.6%, and estimated overall survival was 88.7%, 79.1% and 53.8%, respectively. Mean followup was 98.8 ± 54.2 months in those diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma. Mean time to recurrence was 2.3 years. The latest experienced recurrence was 4.4 years after laparoscopic cryoablation. There was a postoperative complication rate of 10.6% with a total of 15 complications. Conclusions: Laparoscopic cryoablation achieves good long-term oncologic outcomes for localized small renal masses. It can safely be used in patients who cannot undergo or are unwilling to accept the risks of partial nephrectomy. Mean time to recurrence was 2.3 years and all recurrences developed within 4.4 years of initial treatment.

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