Gakis G., Morgan T.M., Daneshmand S., Keegan K.A., Todenhöfer T., Mischinger J., Schubert T., Zaid H.B., Hrbacek J., Ali-El-Dein B., Clayman R.H., Galland S., Olugbade K., Rink M., Fritsche H.-M., Burger M., Chang S.S., Babjuk M., Thalmann G.N., Stenzl A., Efstathiou J.A.
Annals of Oncology 2015 26:8 (1754-1759)
Background: To investigate the impact of perioperative chemo(radio)therapy in advanced primary urethral carcinoma (PUC). Patients and methods: A series of 124 patients (86 men, 38 women) were diagnosed with and underwent surgery for PUC in 10 referral centers between 1993 and 2012. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank testing was used to investigate the impact of perioperative chemo(radio)therapy on overall survival (OS). The median follow-up was 21 months (mean: 32 months; interquartile range: 5-48). Results: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (N-CRT) plus adjuvant chemotherapy (ACH), and ACH was delivered in 12 (31%), 6 (15%) and 21 (54%) of these patients, respectively. Receipt of NAC/N-CRT was associated with clinically node-positive disease (cN+; P = 0.033) and lower utilization of cystectomy at surgery (P = 0.015). The objective response rate to NAC and N-CRT was 25% and 33%, respectively. The 3-year OS for patients with objective response to neoadjuvant treatment (complete/partial response) was 100% and 58.3% for those with stable or progressive disease (P = 0.30). Of the 26 patients staged =cT3 and/or cN+ disease, 16 (62%) received perioperative chemo(radio)therapy and 10 upfront surgery without perioperative chemotherapy (38%). The 3-year OS for this locally advanced subset of patients (ge;cT3 and/or cN+) who received NAC (N = 5), N-CRT (N = 3), surgery-only (N = 10) and surgery plus ACH (N = 8) was 100%, 100%, 50% and 20%, respectively (P = 0.016). Among these 26 patients, receipt of neoadjuvant treatment was significantly associated with improved 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS) (P = 0.022) and OS (P = 0.022). Proximal tumor location correlated with inferior 3-year RFS and OS (P = 0.056/0.005). Conclusion: In this series, patients who received NAC/N-CRT for cT3 and/or cN+ PUC appeared to demonstrate improved survival compared with those who underwent upfront surgery with or without ACH.