Voog J.C., Paulus R., Shipley W.U., Smith M.R., McGowan D.G., Jones C.U., Bahary J.-P., Zeitzer K.L., Souhami L., Leibenhaut M.H., Rotman M., Husain S.M., Gore E., Raben A., Chafe S., Sandler H.M., Efstathiou J.A.
European Urology 2015
Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is associated with coronary heart disease and diabetes in men with prostate cancer (PCa); however, controversy exists regarding ADT and cardiovascular mortality (CVM) with limited data for lower risk disease. Objective: We conducted a hypothesis-generating retrospective analysis to evaluate the relationship between short-course ADT and CVM in patients with clinically localized PCa enrolled in a phase III trial. Design, setting, and participants: A total of 1979 men with clinically localized (T1b-2b, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] <20 ng/ml) PCa enrolled in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08 from 1994 to 2001. Patients were randomized to radiation therapy (RT) with or without short-course ADT (4 mo of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy and antiandrogen). Median follow-up was 9.1 yr for survivors. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The Cox proportional hazards model assessed overall survival. The Fine-Gray proportional hazards model assessed disease-specific survival (DSS) and CVM. Covariates included age, race, weight, baseline cardiovascular disease, baseline diabetes, baseline hypertension, Gleason score, T stage, and PSA. Results and limitations: Short-course ADT improved overall survival and DSS and was not associated with an increased risk of CVM. Overall, 191 cardiovascular-related deaths were observed. At 10 yr, 83 patients (cumulative incidence rate: 10%) receiving RT and ADT versus 95 patients (cumulative incidence rate: 11%) receiving RT alone experienced CVM. The treatment arm was not associated with increased CVM (unadjusted hazard ratio: 1.07; confidence interval, 0.81-1.42; . p =0.62). Increased CVM was not observed in patients at low risk of PCa death or at high risk of cardiac-related death. Conclusions: Data from patients enrolled in RTOG 94-08 support the hypothesis that ADT does not increase CVM risk in men with clinically localized PCa treated with short-course GnRH agonist therapy. These data support ADT use in settings with proven survival benefit. Patient summary: We investigated the controversial relationship between hormone therapy and cardiovascular mortality in men with prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radiation in a large randomized trial. Our data suggest that hormone therapy does not increase the risk of cardiovascular death in patients with clinically localized PCa and support the use of such therapy in settings with proven survival benefit. Our data show short-course androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), while providing overall and disease-specific survival benefit in combination with radiation therapy, does not increase cardiovascular mortality in clinically localized prostate cancer. These data support the use of ADT in settings with proven survival benefit.