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Contemporary management of regional nodes in penile cancer – Improvement of survival?

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Djajadiningrat R.S., Graafland N.M., Van Werkhoven E., Meinhardt W., Bex A., Van Der Poel H.G., Van Boven H.H., Valdés Olmos R.A., Horenblas S.

Journal of Urology 2014 191:1 (68-73)

Purpose The management of regional nodes of penile squamous cell carcinoma has changed with time due to improved knowledge about diagnosis and treatment. To determine whether changes in the treatment of regional nodes have improved survival, we compared contemporary 5-year cancer specific survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis with that of patients in previous cohorts. Materials and Methods In an observational cohort study of 1,000 patients treated during 56 years 944 were eligible for analysis. Tumors were staged according to the 2009 TNM classification, and patients were divided into 4 cohorts of 1956 to 1987, 1988 to 1993, 1994 to 2000 and 2001 to 2012, reflecting changes in clinical practice regarding regional nodes. Kaplan-Meier survival curves with the log rank test and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to examine trends in 5-year cancer specific survival. Results The 5-year cancer specific survival of patients with cN0 disease treated between 2001 and 2012 was 92% compared to 89% (1994 to 2000), 78% (1988 to 1993) and 85% (1956 to 1987). The 5-year cancer specific survival improved significantly since 1994, the year dynamic sentinel node biopsy was introduced, at 91% (1994 to 2012) vs 82% (1956 to 1993) (p = 0.021). This conclusion still holds after adjustment for pathological T stage and grade of differentiation (HR 2.46, p = 0.01). Extranodal extension, number of tumor positive nodes and pelvic involvement in node positive (pN+) cases were associated with worse 5-year cancer specific survival. Conclusions Despite less surgery being performed on regional nodes, 5-year cancer specific survival has improved in patients with cN0 disease. The number of tumor positive nodes, extranodal extension and pelvic involvement were highly associated with worse cancer specific survival in patients with pN+ disease. In this group other treatment strategies are needed as no improvement was observed. (Ver más)

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