Bone Metastasis in Renal Cell Carcinoma is Preprogrammed in the Primary Tumor and Caused by AKT and Integrin ?5 Signaling

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Haber T., Jöckel E., Roos F.C., Junker K., Prawitt D., Hampel C., Thüroff J.W., Brenner W.

Journal of Urology 2015

Purpose: Bone metastasis develops in 30% of all patients with renal cell carcinoma. We elucidated the mechanisms that lead to and predict bone metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Nine renal cell carcinoma primary cell lines and 30renal cell carcinoma tissue specimens (normal and tumor tissue) were collected from 3 patients with no metastasis and 10 with lung or bone metastasis within 5 years after nephrectomy. Cell migration was analyzed in a Boyden chamber and proliferation was assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Adhesion to fibronectin, and collagen I and IV was determined after cell staining. The expression and/or activity of cellular signaling molecules was quantified by Western blot. Results: Compared to renal cell carcinoma cells from patients without metastasis, the migration of cells from patients with bone metastasis was enhanced 13.5-fold (p = 0.034), and adhesion to fibronectin and collagen I was enhanced 5.8-fold and 6.1-fold (p = 0.002 and 0.014, respectively). In general proliferation was decreased in metastasizing cells. In accordance with these results we detected higher activity of AKT (p = 0.011) and FAK (p = 0.054), higher integrin ?5 expression (p = 0.052) and lower PTEN expression in primary cells from patients with bone metastasis compared to nonmetastasizing cells. An almost similarly altered expression pattern was also observed in the renal cell carcinoma tissue specimens and the normal renal tissue of patients with bone metastasis. Conclusions: We describe evidence that molecular predispositions determine the potential for bone metastasis to develop in renal cell carcinoma, which may serve as prognostic markers after initial tumor detection.

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